Triethanolamine is an organic compound that is comprised of ethylene oxide and ammonia. This chemical compound is commonly found in a number of cosmetic products and is also used in several different medical applications. In cosmetic uses, triethanolamine is used to raise the pH of certain mixtures, as well as acting as an emulsifier to help various ingredients mix better. This chemical is usually colorless or light yellow, and can have a faint ammonia odor. The texture of triethanolamine is usually very thick, and it can turn into a solid or crystallize at room temperatures.
This means that it cannot be added to all products effectively, such as anti-aging serumsas the texture can reduce the ease of application to the skin. Triethanolamine has a number of warnings associated with it, which may become a concern for those who use products that contain it on a regular basis. Triethanolamine can most often be found in cosmetics such as eye shadow, mascara, eyeliner, fragrance, foundation and concealer.
Sometimes, it is also added to hair care products such as hair dyes, wave sets. Triethanolamine is also common in moisturizersshaving creams and gels, as well as sunscreen formulas.
Its main use is to balance the overall pH of a product, but it also works as an emulsifier that helps products retain a more homogenous appearance and to spread creams more evenly over the skin. This is especially important for cosmetic products so that they do not lump or cake on the skin.
In most cases, products containing triethanolamine are not meant to have prolonged contact with the skin and should be washed away daily. Keep this in mind if you are going camping or on road trips, where you may not have access to adequate facilities to cleanse your skin.
Despite its many uses, triethanolamine is moderately dangerous to the skin if it is applied on a long-term basis. If you have any concerns about the dangers of triethanolamine, there are a number of ways to lower your risk of exposure. Although triethanolamine is used in a number of different cosmetic, health, and beauty products, it is also considered moderately dangerous.
Despite FDA approval, it should never be used long term, as it has been proven to have detrimental effects on human skin, on the immune system and has been classified as a respiratory toxicant.
Clinical tests show that high doses of triethanolamine have caused liver, bladder, and testicular cancer in laboratory animals. While these results are no doubt a cause for concern, there are several ways that you can avoid long-term exposure.We love preservativespetroleum -derived ingredients, and ethoxylated emulsifiers.
It's a very special place for certain users as there is no place like this on the internet forums. We do have information on the wiki such as preservatives, emulsifiers, and measuring. Don't forget to check out the rules. Discussions must be about making cosmetics from scratch yourself. No commercial products, no sales, no asking for formulas, formulas must have 3 ingredients or more.
Everything is made of chemicals and all cosmetic ingredients have been tested for safety. For safety reasons, discussion about using food, drugs or supplements for DIY cosmetics are not allowed except for a few exceptions.
Immediate use is no longer one. Do not give or ask for medical advice or diagnosis. Do not discuss making prescription drugs or make medical claims about cosmetics ingredients.
Only members identified with blogger's flair are authorized to link to their blog. I chose Carbomer and related products because it is used in both these products and many other gels in the market.
I know there is also AVC but I don't see it used quite as much. The main advantage of carbomer over other thickeners like xanthan gum and cellulose derivatives is that it can form very viscous gels at very low concentrations and give a clean feel with no stickiness at all.
For example, the recipe below with 0. I used because it is the cheapest, the other varieties are at least double the price. I have seen used in various commercial aloe gels so I thought it might work with aloe x powder since I already had success gelling the aloe powder up with Sepigelwhich has similar ingredient limitations. For this part I didn't heat and hold but boiled the water beforehand and let it cool down to room temperature.
I added a light layer of carbomer powder, let it wet and stirred it in, as described here. I did't use a hot water bath because that was too unwieldily. The carbomer will take hours to hydrate, stir occasionally during this period.
From what I read on Chemist Corner, if you don't disperse the carbomer properly, you can have what is called a fish-eye problem: lumps of unneutralised carbomer which is acidic and irritant in the final product.
This is probably more of a problem when you scale up production, but just be careful anyway.Carbopol is available in several different grades, which are widely used in manufacture of cosmetics and toiletries, including gels, creams and lotions, detergents, and air fresheners.
Neutralizing agents include triethanolamine TEAsodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. Manufacturing methods vary according to the type of product, but can be summarized as follows:. Dispersion is completed in a fraction of the time taken by conventional means, avoiding the risk of overshearing the polymer.
Operation is described below.How to make Aloe Vera gel?
In certain circumstances Silverson mixers can be used for the neutralization stage, depending on percentage and grade of Carbopol. The vessel is charged with appropriate base fluid.
The mixer is started, and the Carbopol is added. The high speed rotation of the single-piece Ultramix workhead creates a powerful vortex, drawing the powder and liquid down into the workhead where they are rapidly mixed. The materials are then forced through the slots in the side of the workhead and projected back into the body of the mix. Any agglomerates are broken down as they pass through the slots. The vigorous movement in the vessel created by the Ultramix ensures that in a short mixing cycle all the material passes many times through the workhead, progressively reducing the particle size and exposing an increasing surface area to the surrounding liquid.
This rapidly completes hydration. The batch size, grade and percentage of Carbopol, and the product viscosity dependant on pH of solution before neutralization dictate which Silverson mixer is most suitable for individual process requirements.
Have the latest how-to videos, application reports and more delivered straight to your inbox. The Problem Carbopol is generally supplied as a very light, low density powder. It tends to float when added to water, requiring vigorous agitation to be incorporated. This can cause dusting problems.
St George News
When added to the water, Carbopol tends to form agglomerates which are not readily dispersed. Some powders have poor flow properties, making controlled powder addition difficult.
While some grades display no significant increase in viscosity until neutralized, others start to thicken immediately, making addition of powder increasingly difficult. Aeration can create a persistent foam which may require chemical additives to disperse.
Entrained air is very difficult to remove, clouding clear gels and causing problems where packaging is filled by volume rather than weight. Potential full yield is difficult to obtain with conventional agitation; many formulations contain unnecessarily high levels of Carbopol to compensate for this.
Prolonged exposure to intense high shear can damage the polymer, reducing viscosity. The Solution These problems can be overcome using a Silverson mixer to disperse the Carbopol. Dispersion Dispersion is completed in a fraction of the time taken by conventional means, avoiding the risk of overshearing the polymer. Neutralization In certain circumstances Silverson mixers can be used for the neutralization stage, depending on percentage and grade of Carbopol. Stage 1 The vessel is charged with appropriate base fluid.Discussions Activity Sign In.
Spadirect Member. July in General. Any thoughts, comments and suggestions would be greatly appreciated. Dtdang Member. July What ph you want to bring down? Vnnil Member. If one ingredient has additional performance characteristics over the other, I would like to know. Thanks again for any input. I should add that my lotion will also include carbomer in the formulation.
I should mention I would like the lotion formulation to be globally-compliant. Thanks again. I am not aware of any particularly important advantage, unless you're neutralizing a polymer in a formula containing large amounts of ethanol or you're making hair styling products check this document.
Microformulation Member, Professional Chemist. Here is a knowledge article from Lubrizol on neutralizing Carbomers and related products. It may answer your questions but also give you a clear overview of the concept as well.
Thanks, the article is very informative. Everyone, please feel free to share your thoughts on my following layman's logic. In comparing the carbomer neutralizing chemicals NaOH vs.
AMP vs. TEAassuming all other formulation benefits are equal among the three options Please comment on this assumption as well. Neutralization Ratio to Carbomer Neutralization at pH 7. Thanks again for any comments. Belassi Member. What you should do is test all three to find the sensorial you prefer. Cosmetic Brand Creation. Concept to name to IMPI search to logo and brand registration.Carbomer is the trade name for polyacrylic acid PAAa group of synthetic high molecular weight polymers of acrylic acid used in cosmetics and personal care products as thickening agents.
They are primarily added to gel-like formulations, such as facial moisturizerssunscreen, shampoo, anti-aging treatments, cleansers, and scrubs, to help control the viscosity, flow, and consistency of the product. The Carbomer polymers have been used in cosmetics for over 50 years.
An article from Cosmetics Info explains that the Carbomers are large molecules prepared from relatively small chemical compounds called monomes. The monomers used to make Carbomer polymers are acrylic acid and polyalkenyl polyethers. All of the Carbomer polymers are chemically similar, differing from each other in molecular weight and viscosity. Dry Carbomer polymers come in the form of white, fluffy powders. You may notice a number associated with the Carbomer name on the ingredient label.
This is the Carbomer code.
Carbomer codes i. The Carbomer polymers can have varying pH levels that must be neutralized in order for them to function as thickening agents. Formulations that contain Carbomer polymers will sometimes have these neutralizing agents listed. Other times, companies will purchase pre-neutralized Carbomer, which may or may not list the neutralizing agent. There are claims that some of these neutralizing agents may carry contaminants that can be potentially carcinogenic.
An ingredient that is similar to the Carbomers is sodium polyacrylate, a sodium salt of polyacrylic acid. This ingredient is also used as a thickening agent and texture enhancer is cosmetics and personal care products since it is a superabsorbent polymer with the ability to absorb as much as to times its mass in water. To understand the functions of Carbomers, it is important to first understand how they work.
When a Carbomer polymer is placed in a water solution at neutral pH, many of the side chains will lose their protons and acquire a negative charge. Because of this reaction, Carbomers are able to absorb and retain water, and swell to many times their original volume. This is why Carbomers are considered to be texture enhancers and are used to add thickness to products, particularly gel-like formulations. Additionally, Carbomers have the ability to distribute or suspend an insoluble solid in a liquid.
Thus, Carbomers are used to keep emulsions from separating into their oil and liquid components, as well as to control the consistency of cosmetics and other personal care products. By adding Carbomers to things like shampoos, conditioners, creams, and lotions, formulations will appear more rich, smooth, and creamy.
Varying the amount of Carbomer used in a product allows the manufacturer to create anything from a stiff hair gel that will stay exactly where you put it, a lotion with body but which still flows easily, or a rich cream that holds it shape. According to skin care expert Paula Begoun, high amounts of carbomers in a gel may result in the product rolling or balling up of cosmetic products on skin, but this phenomenon depends on other formulary steps taken to minimize this effect.
Carbomers will not make the skin tacky, dry, or tight. In addition to use in personal care products, Carbomer polymers have a wide variety of commercial and industrial uses.
Some examples include use as a fragrance carrier, medical bandages, wound dressings, and fire-retardant gel, just to name a few. Upon evaluation of the scientific data, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that Carbomer polymers were safe as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products.
Isohexadecane is a synthetic ingredient used as a cleansing agent, skin-conditioning agent, and a te Stearyl alcohol is a natural fatty alcohol that is used as an emollient, emulsifier, and thickener i Acetyl glucosamine is a skin-replenishing ingredient that functions to reduce signs of aging through Origin Functions Safety.
Related Octinoxate Dipropylene Glycol Tromethamine. Origin The Carbomer polymers have been used in cosmetics for over 50 years. Functions To understand the functions of Carbomers, it is important to first understand how they work. Isohexadecane Isohexadecane is a synthetic ingredient used as a cleansing agent, skin-conditioning agent, and a teHand sanitizers have become commonplace in almost every bathroom, building and school supplies list around the nation.
However, here at Clear and Well, we don't use hand sanitizer incessantly because we believe in the benefits of letting our immune systems work it out sometimes. This gives our bodies the chance to come through the other side stronger and more able to fight viruses and bacteria when we inevitably come across them.
But because many of us are required to provide hand sanitizer at school, we have to figure out what brands we can trust, which products are truly safe and which ones to avoid.
Of the three, our choice is alcohol with its long proven track record of minimal hazard with maximum effectiveness.
DIY Hand Sanitizer Gel
Triclosan used to be common in disinfectant products like hand sanitizers and antibacterial soaps, but it was banned from hand and body products in due its toxic nature besides the fact that it's a pesticide! This is still an ingredient in many toothpaste brands. In this article, we examine the 40 most common hand sanitizer brands focusing solely on ingredients to make our determinations. The good news is we were able to find 14 totally acceptable options. We also love to whip up a batch of our own DIY hand sanitizer gelput it in a personal size bottle and throw it in our bags or send it to school with the kids.
Easy peasy and non-toxic. Keep this list handy and you'll be able to tell which products to stay away from just by reading the label. This section consists of our top recommendations.
These brands have made our lives easier by providing trustworthy products with quality ingredients. Hover over each picture to see the active ingredients. We're giving the following hand sanitizers second place because they contain very small amounts of one or two ingredients that have the potential to be mildly problematic.
If using products with these ingredients, be sure to watch for signs of contact dermatitis which is an allergic reaction. Benzalkonium chloride is the active ingredient in many hand sanitizers due to its superior ability to continue killing germs for hours after drying. Cocamidopropyl betaine, glyceryl laurate and polysorbate 20 are foaming agents, emulsifiers and thickeners used in a wide variety of skincare and cosmetic products.
None of these ingredients are highly toxic, and in such small amounts they're not likely to cause problems, especially when used in moderation. These are the brands you'll want to steer totally clear of because they contain multiple top offenders including synthetic fragrance, parabens, petroleum, and quaternium ingredients. Pin Hi Jc, thanks for taking the time to write such informative articles.
It is sometimes very frustrating to weed out truth from fiction and your insight is greatly appreciated. I wish you were able to tackle or at least highlight some of the inaccuracies in the link above. My question is : were you able to conclude that TEA while a pH adjuster does not have drying effects at all or was that one of the inaccuracies you were talking about? I could not highlight them all because they were too many examples 1.
Unless the product is of single ingredient, it is not possible to say whether the product is overall drying. Pour pure ethanol on the hair and you have a different effect. The chemistry of how a product works is more than a single ingredient. There are links which are spurious e. If I am honest, it is very possible to link any ingredient to cancer but it is more important to explain why there is a possible link, how can it be mitigated and leave the consumer to decide for themselves.
The point is supposed to be that TEA does react with acids to neutralize the ph and it because of that forms salts. I was going by the order of the ingredients, but either way the fact of the matter is the relationship of these two ingredients is that they will neutralize the other. Whether acid or base is added to the other first, both will neutralize the other.
Since Polyacrylate is less in amount than the TEA in this ingredient list it is fair to assume it is being used to lower the ph of the TEA.
It is going form the same compound so it really does not make a difference either way. It is that alcohol characteristic that makes the difference whether the product containing TEA is water based or oil based. Amino alcohols like ethanolamine themselves are in fact drying once denatured. I also never said that the denaturation due to proteins was the exact same as denatured alcohol. I stated that denaturation of alcohol due to heating like discussed in the post, is actually different than if the alcohol was already denatured before adding it to the gel.
That is why I included the photos of the aubrey organics gel. It contains denatured alcohol and a made a point to specifically contrast it with the type of denaturing I was talking about. I emphasized that though they are both being denatured, the way it is denatured no heating, before heating, or after heating, etc is what matters. How exactly an alcohol was denatured before being added to the gel is kind of irrelevant because I was talking specifically about denaturing due to heat when done in a specific order, to get the clear gel result.
So what you are saying doesn't conflict with anything I said. There may not be only one way to get gel to look Crystal clear, but the parameters of what I was talking about in this post were extremely specific so don't try to over generalize it.
I said over and over that if the gel actually contains TEA or alcohol and it is crystal clear, it will always contain an acid along with it then you can assume it has been heated to be denatured.
There may be other ways to get gels crystal clear, but if they don't contain TEA or alcohol, then they are not what I am talking about. BTW you say you have made crystal clear gels before but I am not inclined to believe that unless you show what product it is you are talking about. How should I just take your word for it?
Provide proof, pictures. How do I know your "crystal clear" isn't just slightly opalescent or foggy like the aubrey organic or even giovanni LA styling gel? Plus you never specified the ingredients in said product, so it may not even apply to what I am saying. Yes the polyacrylate acid is a holding agent too.
That doesn't take away from the fact that TEA is helping to increase the viscosity as well, and is also contributing to the hold in this gel.
Why would we assume that only one ingredient is relevant to the hold? Plus the one furthest down the list?